Tips & Techniques – Meringue


It has been claimed that meringue was invented in the Swiss village of Meiringen and improved by an Italian chef named Gasparini between the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century.

There are 3 types of meringue:-

  • French Meringue
  • Swiss Meringue
  • Italian Meringue

General Tips for all meringue:

  • Ensure all equipment used are clean, dry, and greaseless
  • Clear egg white free from yolks
  • Egg white at room temperature
  • Castor sugar or fine sugar are used
  • The sugar must be added slowly to the egg whites, while continuously mixing.

French Meringue

Sugar, Egg white

Sponge base, Macaron shells, meringue kisses.


  1. Whip together egg whites and sugar until firm
  2. Pipe or shape in desired shape and size
  3. Bake in deck oven at 90°C for 3-4hrs, or as necessary


  • For any sponge bases, if the Egg white ratio is higher than the Sugar, whip it until soft peak before handling.
  • For any sponge recipe, if Sugar ratio is higher than the Egg white, whip it until hard peak before handling.
  • Low sugar ratio French meringues must be handled more carefully as it collapses easily

Italian Meringue

Water, Sugar, Egg white

Mousses, Chiboust cream, garnishing of tarts, marshmallows or product finishing.


  1. Boil sugar and water to 116-118°C (soft boiled)
  2. At the same time, whip egg whites on low speed
  3. Pour cooked sugar into meringue and whip on high speed until white, shiny and reaches room temperature
  4. Pipe and bake at desired shape and sizes.


  • Place the water before sugar
  • Avoid whisking sugar and water during the boiling of the sugar
  • Amount of water should represent 1/3 of the weight of the sugar
  • For soft meringue, start whisking egg whites at 115°c

Swiss Meringue

Icing sugar, Egg white

Buttercream, decorative elements for cake or garnishing dessert


  1. Set up a bain-marie or double-boil
  2. Start whipping egg whites and sugar slowly
  3. Slowly add icing sugar and whip until meringue becomes white and shiny or at 65°C
  4. Bake in deck oven at 90°C for 3-4hrs, or as necessary


  • Water should be constantly simmering
  • Water must not be touching the bowl directly
  • Allow meringue mix to cool down to room temperature before handling